If you’ve ever walked on a stunning hardwood floor and wondered how it’s made, you’re in the right place. In this article, we’ll take you through the production process of this beautiful and durable flooring option.

From the selection of timber to the final finish, hardwood flooring goes through an intricate process of transformation. Our step-by-step guide breaks down each stage of production to give you a deeper understanding of the art of hardwood flooring manufacturing.

Key Takeaways

  • The process of hardwood flooring production involves various stages, including timber selection, milling, drying, profiling, shaping, and finishing.
  • Timber selection is crucial in determining the quality, durability, and appearance of the hardwood flooring.
  • The milling process involves cutting the selected timber into planks of specific sizes using different sawing methods.
  • To ensure stability and quality, the planks undergo drying and conditioning to achieve the desired moisture content.
  • After profiling and shaping, the hardwood flooring undergoes various finishing techniques to enhance its appearance and durability.

Selecting the Right Timber for Hardwood Flooring

In the production of hardwood flooring, selecting the right timber is the first and most crucial step. The right timber ensures that the flooring is strong, stable, and has an attractive appearance to complement your interior décor. At every stage of hardwood flooring construction, careful thought is given to the type of timber used.

There are different factors to consider when choosing the timber for your hardwood flooring. Durability is one of the primary concerns. Hardwoods such as Jarrah or Blackbutt are ideal for high-traffic areas and commercial properties. For residential properties, Australian Oak, Spotted Gum, and Tasmanian Oak are popular choices.


Timber Species Rating
Jarrah 3
Blackbutt 3
Australian Oak 2
Spotted Gum 2
Tasmanian Oak 2

The species of the timber is also a vital consideration in selecting the right hardwood for your flooring. Australian hardwoods are popular choices for interior flooring due to their durability, distinct characteristics, and natural beauty. The different colours and grains of the timber species provide unique design options that can enhance your home’s interior design.

The appearance of the timber is another factor to consider. Some timber species have a lighter or darker shade. Some have distinctive knots or patterns that add character to the flooring. When selecting the timber for your hardwood flooring, it’s essential to consider how it will complement your design style.

At the end of the day, choosing the right timber for your hardwood floor requires careful thought and consideration. The wood’s natural beauty, durability, and appearance should all be taken into account to ensure a stellar final product.

Preparing the Timber for Production

Once we have carefully selected the ideal timber for use in our hardwood flooring, the next step is preparation. Timber preparation is critical to ensure that the wood is of the appropriate quality and condition for the subsequent manufacturing processes. The steps involved in this stage of production include:

  1. Logging: The selected trees are carefully cut down, and then the logs are transported to the sawmill.
  2. Debarking: Once the logs have arrived at the sawmill, the bark is removed and set aside for use as fuel.
  3. Rough Sawing: The logs are then cut into rough planks of varying thicknesses, depending on the desired end product.
  4. Grading and Sorting: The planks are then sorted based on their quality, size, and appearance. Poor-quality planks are discarded or repurposed for other uses.
  5. Kiln Drying: The selected planks are then placed in a kiln to dry, reducing their moisture content and making them lighter and easier to handle. This step is critical for producing stable and durable hardwood flooring.

After the timber is prepared, it is then ready for milling and further processing. The careful preparation and handling of the timber ensures that the hardwood flooring we manufacture is of the highest quality and durability.

Milling the Timber into Planks

After selecting the right timber for hardwood flooring, the next step is milling the timber into planks of specific sizes. This process is crucial as it determines the quality and characteristics of the flooring.

There are different sawing methods used in timber milling, including plain sawing, quarter sawing, and rift sawing. Each method produces distinct grain patterns and affects the stability and durability of the planks.

Plain Sawing

Plain sawing, also known as flat sawing, is the most common method used in hardwood flooring fabrication. In this method, the log is cut into planks by slicing it horizontally from top to bottom.

Plain sawn planks have a varied grain pattern and are prone to cupping and warping due to changes in moisture content. However, they are less expensive and produce more yield compared to other sawing methods.

Quarter Sawing

Quarter sawing involves cutting the log into quarters before sawing the planks vertically from the pith to the bark. This method produces straight, uniform grain patterns and a stable, durable flooring material.

Quarter sawn planks are less susceptible to cupping and warping and have a distinctive “flecking” pattern that is highly desirable in hardwood flooring. However, this method is more expensive and produces less yield compared to plain sawing.

Rift Sawing

Rift sawing is similar to quarter sawing but involves cutting the log at a slightly different angle to produce a straighter grain pattern. This method is the most expensive but also produces the most stable and durable planks.

The milling process requires precision and skill to ensure the planks are cut to the desired thickness, width, and length. Once the planks are cut, they undergo further preparation processes before being dried and conditioned.

Drying and Conditioning the Planks

After milling, the planks are prepared for the drying and conditioning process. This step is crucial for ensuring that the hardwood flooring is stable and strong. The planks are first stacked in a way that allows air to circulate around them.

Plank drying is the process of removing moisture from the planks to achieve a specific moisture content suitable for use. It is an essential step in ensuring the high quality of the hardwood flooring.

Method Description
Kiln-drying Planks are placed in a kiln where heat and humidity are controlled to achieve the desired moisture content. This is a quicker process and allows for tighter scheduling.
Natural-drying Planks are stacked outside in a shady area for at least six months to a year. The natural drying process takes longer but can produce higher quality, more stable boards with less warping.

Once the desired moisture content is achieved, the planks undergo a conditioning process where they are acclimatised to the environment in which they will be installed. This process ensures that the planks are not affected by temperature and humidity changes after installation.

At this point, any visible defects are removed before continuing to the next step of profiling and shaping the flooring.

Profiling and Shaping the Flooring

Now that the planks are dry and ready to go, it’s time to shape them into the desired dimensions. This process is known as profiling and shaping.

There are various techniques used to create tongue-and-groove or click-lock profiles for easy installation. These profiles allow the planks to fit snugly together, creating a smooth and seamless look.

One common technique used in profiling is called ‘moulding’. In this process, the planks are run through a machine that shapes the edges of the board.

A router is another profiling tool that’s often used to create decorative effects. This tool can cut rounded edges, bevelled edges, and other intricate shapes to add character to the flooring.

Hardwood Flooring Construction Techniques

The choice of profiling technique will depend on the type of hardwood flooring being made. For example, solid hardwood flooring is typically milled from a single piece of timber, resulting in a uniform look. On the other hand, engineered hardwood flooring is constructed from several layers of material, including a top layer of hardwood veneer that’s glued to a base of high-quality plywood.

Regardless of the construction technique, the profiling and shaping stage is crucial in achieving a flawless finish for the hardwood flooring. It requires precision, attention to detail, and a skilled workforce to ensure the planks are cut to the right size and shape.

Finishing and Coating the Flooring

In this section, we’ll take a closer look at the final stages of hardwood flooring production, where the flooring is finished and coated to enhance its appearance and protect it from wear and tear. The finishing and coating process involves several steps, including sanding, staining, and sealing. Let’s explore each of these in more detail.


The first step in the finishing process is sanding the hardwood flooring. This involves using a series of progressively finer abrasives to remove any rough spots or imperfections in the wood and create a smooth surface. Sanding also helps to open the wood’s pores, making it easier for the stain and sealer to penetrate and bond with the wood.


After sanding, the hardwood flooring is ready to be stained. Staining gives the flooring its desired color and can be customized to match the decor of the room. There are many different types of stain available, from traditional wood tones to more vibrant and unique colors. Once the stain is applied, it needs time to dry and penetrate the wood before the final coat is added.


The final step in the finishing and coating process is sealing the hardwood flooring. Sealing helps to protect the wood from scratches, dents, and other types of damage. It also helps to prevent moisture from penetrating the wood, which can cause warping or cupping. There are several different types of sealer available, including oil-based and water-based options. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of appearance and durability.

Overall, the finishing and coating process is essential for creating beautiful and long-lasting hardwood flooring. By sanding, staining, and sealing the wood, we can enhance its natural beauty and protect it from wear and tear.


Now that we’ve explored the step-by-step guide on how hardwood flooring is made, we have a deeper understanding and appreciation for this beautiful and long-lasting flooring option. From selecting the right timber to the final finish and coating, many intricate processes are involved in hardwood flooring manufacturing.

The steps in making hardwood flooring require precision, expertise and attention to detail. The timber selection process, for example, is critical in determining the durability, species and appearance of the finished product. Milling the timber into planks must also be precise to achieve the desired dimensions. This process is followed by drying and conditioning to ensure the stability and quality of the hardwood flooring.

Profiling and shaping the flooring is equally important to achieve tongue-and-groove or click-lock profiles for easy installation. Finally, finishing and coating techniques are used to enhance the appearance and durability of hardwood flooring. From staining to sealing, every step matters.

At every stage of hardwood flooring production, the utmost care is taken to ensure that the product is of the highest quality and meets the required standards. We hope this guide has given you a better understanding of the intricate process involved in hardwood flooring manufacturing and the steps in making hardwood flooring.


How is hardwood flooring made?

Hardwood flooring is made through a step-by-step process that involves selecting timber, milling it into planks, drying and conditioning the planks, profiling and shaping the flooring, and finishing and coating the flooring.

What factors should I consider when selecting timber for hardwood flooring?

When selecting timber for hardwood flooring, you should consider factors such as durability, species, and appearance. It’s important to choose a timber that suits your aesthetic preferences and will withstand the intended use of the flooring.

What are the preparation processes involved in making hardwood flooring?

Before being transformed into flooring, the selected timber goes through various preparation processes. These processes may include removing bark, sawing into rough planks, and acclimatizing the timber to the production environment.

How are planks milled for hardwood flooring?

The milling process involves cutting the selected timber into planks of specific sizes. Different sawing methods are used, such as plain, quarter sawn, or rift sawn, to achieve different grain patterns and appearances in the flooring.

What is the purpose of drying and conditioning the planks?

Drying and conditioning the planks is essential to remove moisture and achieve the desired moisture content. This helps ensure the stability and quality of the hardwood flooring, preventing issues such as warping or shrinking.

How are the planks profiled and shaped?

After the planks are dried, they undergo profiling and shaping to achieve the desired dimensions. Techniques such as tongue-and-groove or click-lock profiles are used, allowing for easy installation and a secure fit.

What is involved in finishing and coating the hardwood flooring?

Finishing and coating techniques are used to enhance the appearance and durability of hardwood flooring. These techniques may include staining the flooring to achieve a desired color, followed by sealing or applying a protective coating.

Why should I choose hardwood flooring?

Hardwood flooring offers a timeless and natural beauty that can enhance any space. It is durable, long-lasting, and can add value to your home. Additionally, hardwood flooring is versatile and can be refinished multiple times, allowing for a fresh look over the years.